Archives du mot-clé 3 y.o

The acquisition of temporal marks for the kindergarten child

23 avril 2013

In an entitled accompanying document of the programs,  » For a successful schooling of the children « , collection school of the national center of educational documentation, it is highlighted that all the importance of the good acquisition of the first spatiotemporal marks for the children in kindergarten age (from 3 to 6 years) to allow them to integrate well their first school universe:  » … To teach children to the kindergarten school, it already to do a class, even if the subject of the exchanges can seem a little bite off school. It is maybe because of it that marks are lacking to organize the space, the day. « .

The day of the children
 » … The rhythms of life of the children are obviously less complex than those of the biggest. The fact that they live in the same educational community as their elder does not forbid to think about the type of organization of the day which suits them best. The schedule of the day has to remain readable for the child and make immediately sense. A quite particular effort of explanation of the various moments which compose it is necessary. The rites of transition, the beginning of session, the end of session are reassuring and educational …  »

The location in the space and in the time
 » … Traditionally, the kindergarten school grants a lot of importance for the activities which allow the children to find a way in the space and in the time. With the children, it is important at first to make sure that they perceive well the marks which allow them to feel safe in the complex space that is a school and in the succession of moments of a day which looks like little what they knew up to there …

To distinguish between subjective duration and the time of clocks, to order the events with social regard and either only with matter of subjective duration are difficult processes. With the children, it is advisable to evoke the social temporal marks most important … It is important also to make feel the real-life durations: duration of the activities, the naps, the break, etc. … Even there, it is advisable to establish quickly, in the life of the class, the moments when the adult evokes actions to come or taken place actions (reminder). It is only gradually that the child will take part in this verbal work of structuring of the temporality … « 

The succession of the moments of day
Hardly of this analysis, it becomes more obvious than at this age, the first stage of structuring of time at the children passes at first by the identification then by the acquisition of the good chronological sequence of the usual daily cycles: the early morning, morning, noon, the afternoon, the evening and at night.

These moments can be characterized by a logical result of simple symbols allowing a good understanding and a memorization at the child.
These qualities are going to allow them to appropriate the meaning so as to educational and playful time.

The activities or the structural events
Within the framework of the continuation of his apprenticeship, the young children identifies relatively easily and moreover with pleasure the various activities or the events which structure their young existence, once again, by going in the morning towards the evening.

The difficulty is stronger – with the complexity of the series to be memorized – to acquire the good chronological sequence which orders every these time remarkable of their day.

To know more about it
Although the document which was of use as base to this article was more particularly drafted for the teachers, its reading by parents or of parents-to-be can only give them a vision more refined by this important mission, entrusted to the teachers of the kindergarten school, although is the initiation into time for a good introduction in the future school life of the toddlers.

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For a successful schooling of the children
Report of the national center of educational documentation
Collection school
Accompanying document of the programs

At what age do we learn to read the time to kindergarten?

Our dear children are often very impatient to have a watch too, as their parents. But before wearing it proudly in their wrist, they first need to learn how to read time… This complex apprenticeship is generally approached when they are about 7 years old at school, even if certain children are asking for a watch already at the kindergarten school.

Cognitive development of the children, in terms of notions of time and hour.
Scientific studies demonstrated that it is between 3 and 4 years that the children begin to acquire their first notions of space, time and quantity. At this age, they also begin to use basic count.

Between 4 and 5 years, they begin to perceive their own performance level. They also begin to know how to classify elements, and to give a sense to the notion of series (days, month, etc.).

Between 5 and 6 years, these notions complicate and the children begin to understand more general notions of membership in a group, a series, a family.

Between 7 and 11 years, they enter the world of the concrete operations, and begin to get acquainted with the logic of the numbers.

Finally, it is also necessary to know that according to P. Fraisse « the child has intuitions of duration, this one showing itself to him under the primitive shape of an interval which opposes the fulfilment of its desires.  » The distinction between « temporal horizon » and « notion of time » is of this respect fertilize, the child who can « have a temporal horizon, feelings of time, appreciate the duration » before « being capable of operating constructions « .

Progressiveness of the apprenticeship of the reading an hour.
When the children reach the age of 7 years, the objective is of their credit note learnt to spot the hour half the hour.
As they also learnt to know all the numbers until 60, a work on the notion of minutes can thus begin to be operated from this age.

Finally, it is at about 8 years when the children will have to know the relation between the hour and minute (the 1 hour it is 60 minutes).

Initiation into time to the kindergarten school.
In touch with the cognitive capacities of the children of kindergarten school, it is asked to the teachers to attempt first of all to allow the children (from 3 to 4 years) to know how to distinguish the various moments of the day.

It is a question at this stage, that the child understands and masters the succession of the events of his/her day.

For the a little older children (from 5 to 6 years), the objective of the teachers concerns the notion of duration, so that the children can well dread it. Indeed, it is what is going to open them the way towards the first rudiments of the apprenticeship of the reading an hour, generally from 7 years.

To reach these crucial goals, the ingenuity of the teachers is often put in big contribution and counts of them publish even on the Internet the fruit of their experiments, under the forms of small comic strips, bed songs, and other construction sets of clocks, all more ingenious and more attractive some than the others.

A watch for the kindergarten school?
Since the beginning of 2000s, and further to a cooperation company/university, a new watch was born: the kindergarten watch who answers numbers of the imperatives wished by the teachers.

Indeed, this educational watch, leaning on a very rudimentary principle of combinations of pictograms, answers a large number of expectations in term of educational tool.

At first, a series of temporal pictograms helps the child to assimilate and to memorize intuitively the various key moments of day: in the morning, morning, noon, the afternoon, an evening and at night.

Secondly, another series of pictograms represents the key activities of the typical day of a child: get up, have a wash, to have lunch, to go to the school, to enter class, etc. …

Thanks to the simplicity of the selected pictograms, the children assimilate very quickly the sense of these various symbols.

The following stage consists then in making them perceive the sense of the combination of two symbols. Here is an example:

– The sun (noon) and a plate: the lunch
– The sun mixed with the moon (evening) and a plate: the supper

Having been tested and had been the object for a long time of several doctoral theses, the educational watch with pictograms entered kindergarten schools.

It is certainly still perfectible, and the teachers, as families contribute every day by their remarks and their suggestions to improve its relevance and its utility.

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P. FRAISSE. Psychology of time(weather) Paris, PUF, on 1967, p. 297,
The development of the location(localization) in the time(weather) at children from 5 to 9 years old of different socioeconomic circles

The construction of the temporal horizon at the child

The preschool said age, from 3 to 6 years

The development of the child